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What are ASTM Grades

What are ASTM Grades

Issue Time:2021-08-04
Title

What are ASTM Grades


ASTM standards define the specific manufacturing process of the material and determine the exact chemical composition of pipes, fittings and flanges, through percentages of the permitted quantities of carbon, magnesium, nickel, etc., and are indicated by “Grade”.

For example, a carbon steel pipe can be identified with Grade A or B, a stainless-steel pipe with Grade TP304 or Grade TP321, a carbon steel fitting with Grade WPB etc..

Below you will find as an example 3 tables with chemical requirements for:

  1. Flanges ASTM A182 Grade F304, F304L F316L
  2. Pipes ASTM A312 Grade TP304, TP304L, TP3016L
  3. Fittings ASTM A403 Grade WP304, WP304L, WP316L

Furthermore, a table with frequently used ASTM Grades, arranged on Pipes, Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Bolts and Nuts, which belong together as a group.

As you may be have noted, in the table below, ASTM A105 has no Grade. Sometimes ASTM A105N is described;
N stands not for Grade, but for normalized. Normalizing is a type of heat treatment, applicable to ferrous metals only. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, casting, forming etc..

CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS COMPOSITION, %

Flanges ASTM A182
GradeCMnPSSiNiCrMo
F3040.0820.0450.0318 – 1118 – 20 
F304L0.0320.0450.0318 – 1318 – 20 
F316L0.0320.0450.03110 – 1516 – 182 – 3
Note:
Grades F304, F304L, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen content of 0.10%.

Pipes ASTM A312
GradeCMnPSSiCrNiMo
TP 3040.0820.0450.03118 – 208 – 11 
TP 304L0.03520.0450.03118 – 208 – 13 
TP 316L0.03520.0450.03116 – 1810 – 142 – 3
Note:
For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes are required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in minimum wall thickness).


Fittings ASTM A403
GradeC
(1)
Mn
(1)
P
(1)
S
(1)
Si
(1)
NiCrMo
WP 3040.0820.0450.0318 – 1118 – 20 
WP 304L0.03 (2)20.0450.0318 – 1218 – 20 
WP 316L0.03 (2)20.0450.03110 – 14 (3)16 – 182 – 3
Notes:
(1) Maximum, unless otherwise indicated.
(2) For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes are required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in minimum wall thickness).
(3) On pierced tubing, the Nickel may be 11.0-16.0%.

FREQUENTLY USED ASTM GRADES

MaterialPipesFttgFlgValvesBolts and Nuts
Carbon SteelA106 Gr AA234 Gr WPAA105A216 Gr WCBA193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr BA234 Gr WPBA105A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr CA234 Gr WPCA105A216 Gr WCB
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
High-Temp
A335 Gr P1A234 Gr WP1A182 Gr F1A217 Gr WC1A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11A234 Gr WP11A182 Gr F11A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12A234 Gr WP12A182 Gr F12A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22A234 Gr WP22A182 Gr F22A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5A234 Gr WP5A182 Gr F5A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9A234 Gr WP9A182 Gr F9A217 Gr C12
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
Low-Temp
A333 Gr 6A420 Gr WPL6A350 Gr LF2A352 Gr LCBA320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3A420 Gr WPL3A350 Gr LF3A352 Gr LC3
 
Austenitic
Stainless
Steel
A312 Gr TP304A403 Gr WP304A182 Gr F304A182 Gr F304A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316A403 Gr WP316A182 Gr F316A182 Gr F316
A312 Gr TP321A403 Gr WP321A182 Gr F321A182 Gr F321
A312 Gr TP347A403 Gr WP347A182 Gr F347A182 Gr F347
MaterialPipesFttgFlgValvesBolts and Nuts


ASTM Materials

PIPES

  • A106 = This specification covers carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service.
  • A335 = This specification covers seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service.
  • A333 = This specification covers wall seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel pipe intended for use at low temperatures.
  • A312 = Standard specification for seamless, straight-seam welded, and cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high-temperature and general corrosive service.

FITTINGS

  • A234 = This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction.
  • A420 = Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
  • A403 = Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings.

FLANGES

  • A105 = This specification covers standards for forged carbon steel piping components, that is, flanges, fittings, Valves, and similar parts, for use in pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions.
  • A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
  • A350 = This specification covers several grades of carbon and low alloy steel forged or ring-rolled flanges, forged fittings and Valves for low-temperature service.

VALVES

  • A216 = This specification covers carbon steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service and of quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought-steel parts by fusion welding.
  • A217 = This specification covers steel castings, martensitic stainless steel and alloys steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive service.
  • A352 = This specification covers steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for low-temperature service.
  • A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.

BOLTS AND NUTS

  • A193 = This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
  • A320 = Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
  • A194 = Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.
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